1. What characteristics do all plants share?
Nearly all plants are autotrophs all plants are eukaryotes that contain many cells, all of which are surrounded by cell walls.
2. What do plants need to live successfully on land?
Land plants must have ways to obtain water and other nutrients from their surroundings, retain water, transport materials in their bodies, support their bodies and reproduce
3. What are the different stages of a plants life cycle?
Plants have complex life cycles that include the sporophyte stage and the gametophyte stage.
4. What characteristics do the three groups of nonvascular plants share?
There are three major groups of nonvascular Plants: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. These low – growing plants live in moist areas where they can absorb water and other nutrients directly from their environment.
5. What characteristics do the three groups of seedless vascular plants share?
Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails have true vascular tissue, and they do not produce seeds. Instead of seeds, these plants reproduce by releasing spores.
6. What characteristics do seed plants share?
Seed plants have vascular tissue.
7. How do seed become new plants?
Seed plants use pollen and seeds to reproduce.
8. What are the main functions of roots, stems and leaves?
Roots anchor a plant in the ground and absorb water and mineral. Stems carry substances between roots and leaves, provide support and hold up the leaves. Leaves capture the sun´s energy for photosynthesis.
9. What are the characteristics of gymnosperms and how o they reproduce?
Every gymnosperm produces naked seeds. In addition, many gymnosperms have needle-like or scalelike leaves, and deep-growing roots.
10. What are the characteristics of angiosperms and their flowers?
In gymnosperms reproduction, pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone. Sperm and egg cells join in an ovule on the femalecone.
11. How do angiosperms reproduce? All angiosperms produce flowers and fruits.
12. What are the two types of angiosperms?
During angiosperms reproduction, pollen falls on a flower`s stigma. In time, sperm and egg cells join in the flowers.
13. What are the three stimuli that produce plant responses?
Plant tropisms include responses to touch, light and gravity.
14. How do plants respond to seasonal changes?
Plant responses to seasonal changes include photoperiodism and dormancy.
15. How long do different angiosperms live?
Angiosperms are classified as annuals, biennials or perennials.
16. How are animal bodies typically organized?
Higher levels of structure, including tissues, organ, and systems.
17. What are four major functions of animals?
Obtain food an oxygen, keep internal conditions stable, move, and reproduce.
18- How are animals classified?
According to how they are related to others animals. These relationships are determined by an animal´s body structure, the way an animal develops and its DNA
19- What is symmetry?
The balanced arrangement of parts, called symmetry, is characteristic of many animals.
20- What can you infer about an animal based on its symmetry?
Depending on their symmetry, animals share some general characteristics.
21- What are the main characteristics of sponges?
Sponges are invertebrate animals that usually have not body symmetry and never have tissues or organs.
22- What are the main characteristics of cnidarians?
Cnidarians use stinging cells to capture food and defend themselves.
23- Why are coral reefs important?
Coral reefs are home to move species of fishes and invertebrates that any other environment on Earth.
24- What are the three main phyla of worms?
Biologist classify worms into three major phyla- flatworms, roundworms and segmented worms.
25- What are the main characteristics of each phylum of worms?
Flatworms are flat and soft as jelly, unlike cnidarians or flatworms, roundworms have a digestive system that is like a tube, open at both ends.
Earth worms and other segmented worms have bodies made up of many linked sections called segments.
26- What are the main characteristics of mollusks?
In addition to a soft body often covered by a shell, a mollusk has a thin layer of tissue called a mantle that covers its internal organs and an organ called foot.
27- What are the major groups of mollusks and how do they differ?
Gastropods: are mollusks that have a single external shell or no shell at all.
Bivalves: are mollusks that have two shells held together by hinges and strong muscles. Cephalopods: is an ocean-dwellings mollusk whose food is adapted to form tentacles around its mouth.
28- What are the four major groups of arthropods and what are their characteristics?
Crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes and millipedes, and insects. Arthropods are invertebrates that have an external skeleton, a segmented body and jointed attachments called appendages.
29- How do crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes and millipedes differ?
Crustaceans: arthropod that has two or three body sections five or more pairs of legs, and no antennae.
Arachnids: are arthropods with two body sections, four pairs of legs, and no antennae.
Centipedes and millipedes: are arthropods with two body sections an many pairs of legs.
30- What are the main characteristics of insects?
Are arthropods with three body sections, six legs, one pair of antennae and usually on or two pairs of wings.
31- What is one way insects are adapted to obtain particular types of food?
Insect´s mouthparts are adapted for a highly specific way of getting food.
32- What are two types of metamorphosis that insects undergo?
Each insect species undergoes either complete metamorphosis or gradual metamorphosis.
33- Why are insects important in food chains?
Insects play key roles in food chains because of the many different ways that they obtain food and then become food for other animals.
34- What are the other ways insects interact with their environments?
Two ways insects interact with other living things are by moving pollen among plants and by spreading disease-causing organism.
35- What are some ways used to control insects pest?
To try to control pests, people use chemicals, traps and living things include other insects.
36- What are the main characteristics of echinoderms?
Echinoderms are invertebrates with an internal skeleton and systems of fluid-filled tubes called a water vascular system.
37- What are the major groups of echinoderms?
There are four major groups of echinoderms: sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers.
38- key terms
Larva: is an immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult.
Medusa: The jellyfish you see in figure 13 is a medusa (The bowl-shaped body plan).
Cnidarian: Are the invertebrates that have stinging cells and take food into a central body cavity.
Polyp: The cnidarian body plan is characterized by a vaselike shape and that usually adapted for a life attached to an underwater surfice.
Colony: A group of individual organism living or growing together.
Coral reef: A diverse environtment named for a coral animals that make up its stony structure
Cuticle: The waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves and stems of most plants.
Vascular Tissue: The internal transporting tissue in some plants that is made up of tubelike structure.
Zygote: A fertilized egg, produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg.
Vascular Plant: The internal transporting tissue.
Gametophyte: The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells.
Nonvascular Plant: A low – growing plant that lacks true vascular tissue.
Sporophyte: The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spores.
Rhizoid: A thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients.
Frond: The leaf of a fern plant.
Bilateral symmetry: body plane with two halves they are mirror images.
Radial symmetry: the quality of having many lines of symmetry that all pass thought a central point.
Cell: the basic unit of structure and functions in living things.
Tissue: a group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Organ: a structure in the body that is composed of different kids of tissue.
Adaption: a behavior or physical characteristics that allows an organism to survive or reproduce in its environment.
Sexual reproduction: a reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents.
Phylum: one of the major group into which bidogist classify members of a kingdom.
Fertilization: the joining of a sperm and an egg.
Asexual reproduction: a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parents.
Vertebrate: an animal that has a backbone.
Invertebrate: an animal the does not have backbone
39- key terms to define (pages 830 to 857)
mollusk open circulatory system gill gastropod herbivore carnivore omnivore radula bivalve cephalopod arthropod exoskeleton molting antenna crustacean abdomen arachnid metamorphosis insect thorax pupa complete metamorphosis nymph gradual metamorphosis ecology food chain producer consumer decomposer pollinator pesticide biological control echinoderm endoskeleton tube feet water vascular system